27 Aralık 2017 Çarşamba

İstiklal Marşı Orijinal Osmanlica Metin

İstiklal Marşı Orijinal Metin

2 Mart 1921 yılında kabul edilen İstiklal Marşı'nın şairi ve güftecisi Mehmet Akif Ersoy'u vefatının 81. yılında rahmetle anıyoruz.

Darülfünun Edebiyat-ı Umumiye müderrisliğine tayin edilen Mehmet Akif, uzun süre bu kadroda kaldı. 1913’te İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti’ne girdi.

I. Dünya Savaşı sırasında bu cemiyete bağlı bir örgüt olan Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa aracılığıyla Almanya’daki Müslüman tutsakların durumunu incelemek üzere Berlin’e gönderildi. Ardından Arabistan ve Lübnan’a gitmiş ve burada batı-doğu ayrımına şahit oldu. İstanbul’a döndükten sonra Darül-Hikmet-i İslamiye’nin başkatipliğine atandı.

Mili Mütareke döneminde kurtuluş hareketine destek verdi. Balıkesir’de yaptığı konuşmadan dolayı İstanbul’daki görevinden alındı. Ankara Hükümeti’nin kurulmasından sonra Burdur Milletvekili olarak meclise girdi.

O sırada Maarif Vekili Hamdullah Suphi’nin desteği ile İstiklal Marşı için açılan yarışmaya giren Mehmet Akif Ersoy, 724 şiir arasından yarışmayı kazandı. 18 Mart 1921’de kabul edilen şiir, 1924 yılında Osman Zeki Üngör tarafından bestelenerek “Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nin Milli Marşı” olarak ilan edildi.

Breadsellers in Bosna 1912

Breadseller at the Market, 1912 (Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina)

Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes referred to simply as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. It has had permanent settlement since the Neolithic Age. By the early historical period it was inhabited by Illyrians and Celts. Christianity arrived in the 1st century, and by the 4th century the area became part of the Western Roman Empire. Germanic tribes invaded soon after, followed by Slavs in the 6th Century. In 1136, Béla II of Hungary invaded Bosnia and created the title "Ban of Bosnia" as an honorary title for his son Ladislaus II of Hungary. During this time, Bosnia became virtually autonomous, and was eventually proclaimed a kingdom in 1377. The Ottoman Empire followed in 1463 and lasted over 400 years.

They wrought great changes to the political and administrative system, introduced land reforms, and class and religious distinctions. A series of uprisings began 1831, which culminated in the Herzegovinian rebellion, a widespread peasant uprising, in 1875.

The conflict eventually forced the Ottomans to cede administration of the country to Austria-Hungary through the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929 brought the redrawing of administrative regions into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines, and removed any trace of Bosnian identity.

The kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, and Bosnia was ceded to the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), which led to widespread persecution and genocide. Three years of war began in 1992 which caused around 100,000 deaths and 2 million refugees. ( source Wikipedia, photo credit : Auguste Léon )



23 Aralık 2017 Cumartesi

Atatürk ve Picardie Manevraları

Mustafa Kemal Picardie Manevraları sırasında Fransa'da. 1910

Atatürk 1910 yılında Kolağası rütbesiyle Picardie Manevraları'na katılıyor.

Picardie Manevraları, 12-18 Eylül 1910'da Fransa'nın Pikardi bölgesinde yapılan bir tatbikattır.

Bu tatbikat, I. Dünya Savaşı'nda Britanyalı ve Fransız ordularına başkomutanlık yapan Mareşal Foch komutasında yapılmıştır.

Atatürk burada ilk kez uçağın bir savaş silahı olarak kullanıldığına şahit olmuştur. Sadece 1 yıl sonra bu silah ile Trablusgarp'ta tekrar karşılaşacaktır. Trablusgarp savaşı, uçakların dünya savaş tarihinde silah olarak kullanıldığı ilk savaştır.

Osmanlı imparatorluğu bu manevralara Binbaşı Selahaddin Bey ve Mustafa Kemal'i gözlemci olarak göndermişti. Mustafa Kemal'in tatbikat sonrasındaki sözleri ve yorumları Mareşal Foch'un dikkatini çekmiş, protokole aykırı olarak rütbesi albaydan küçük olduğu halde kendisini düzenlediği bir yemeğe davet etmişti.


#ataturk #picardie #fransa #osmanli #turk #tarihduragi 

21 Aralık 2017 Perşembe

Lev Tolstoy Renkli Fotoğraf

Lev Tolstoy 1897

Savaş ve Barış, Anna Karenina ve Diriliş  romanlarının yazarı Lev Tolstoy, 1897.

Kış ayında evini terketen 82 yaşındaki Tolstoy, 1910 yılında bir tren istasyonunda ölü bulundu. Ölümüne zatürrenin sebep olduğu bilinmektedir.

Marksizm'den etkilenerek oluşturduğu mülkiyet konusundaki radikal fikirleri nedeniyle bütün servetini köylülere dağıttı, her haliyle onlar gibi yaşamaya başladı. Bu sebeple ailesiyle arası açıldı. Hristiyan anarşizmini geliştirmeye çalıştığı "Tanrının Egemenliği İçinizdedir" kitabıyla yeni bir Hristiyanlık akımı tanımlaması, Ortodoks Kilisesi tarafından aforoz edilmesine sebep oldu.

Hayatı boyunca yaşamın nasıl bir şey olduğunu anlamaya çalıştı. Eserlerinde bunu eksiksiz olarak yansıtmayı hedef edinmiş en büyük Rus yazarlarından birisi olarak edebiyat ve dünya tarihindeki yerini aldı.

7 Aralık 2017 Perşembe

Murderous Mary, The Elephant hanged for Murder, 1916

Mary hanging from a 100-ton derrick in Erwin, Tennessee.

On September 13, 1916, the town of Erwin, Tennessee, hung 'Murderous Mary' the elephant after she mauled one of her keepers to death the day before.

Mary was a five-ton Asian elephant, also known as Murderous Mary, who performed in the Sparks World Famous Shows circus. After killing a trainer in Kingsport, Tennessee, she was hanged in 1916. Her death is sometimes interpreted as a cautionary tale of circus animal abuse during the early 20th century.

Mary’s talents included picking out 25 tunes on musical horns, which she tooted with her trunk. She was also the champion pitcher on the circus’s baseball team.
But on that tragic day, she had been stripped of her red-and-gold saddle and head-dress of artificial blue feathers and stood tethered in disgrace outside the tent.

On September 12, 1916, a hobo named Walter Eldridge, nicknamed Red because of his rusty-colored hair, was hired as an assistant elephant trainer by the Sparks World Famous Shows circus. A drifter who had been with the circus only a day, he had no experience of handling elephants, but the only qualification required was the ability to wield an ‘elephant stick’ — a rod with a sharp spear at one end. Eldridge led the elephant parade riding on the top of Mary’s back; Mary was the star of the show, riding at the front. There have been several accounts of his death. One, recounted by W.H. Coleman who claimed to be a witness, is that he prodded her behind the ear with a hook after she reached down to nibble on a watermelon rind. She went into a rage, snatched Eldridge with her trunk, threw him against a drink stand and stepped on his head, crushing it.

As the terrified spectators screamed and fled, a local blacksmith shot Mary with a pistol, unloading five rounds of ammunition into her thick hide to little effect. She stood still, suddenly calm again and seemingly oblivious both to the bullets and the commotion as the townsfolk encircled her with chants of “Kill the elephant, kill the elephant!”.

The circus owner, Charlie Sparks, reluctantly decided that the only way to quickly resolve the potentially ruinous situation was to kill the elephant in public. It was decided to hang the elephant by the neck from a railcar-mounted industrial crane. On the following day, a foggy and rainy September 13, 1916, Mary was transported by rail to Unicoi County, Tennessee, where a crowd of over 2,500 people (including most of the town’s children) assembled in the Clinchfield Railroad yard.

Between 1882 and 1930, there were 214 victims of lynchings in Tennessee. Most were black men, summarily found guilty of such crimes as ‘fighting a white man’ and having ‘bad character’.
But soon their tragic ranks would be joined by Mary, surely the only elephant in history ever to have been hanged.

And it seems particularly pertinent to remember her in the week that Prince Charles hosted a much-heralded international conference to address the illegal trade in wildlife parts.

On the following day, a foggy and rainy September 13, 1916, Mary was transported by rail to Unicoi County, Tennessee, where a crowd of over 2,500 people (including most of the town’s children) assembled in the Clinchfield Railroad yard.

Elephants were among the species highlighted as most at risk, but the supposedly enlightened Western world has not always been so concerned about the welfare of these majestic creatures, as we are reminded by the barbarity of Mary’s death.